An uncommon fossil fungus
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Fungus hyphae and resting spores are abundant in the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert. Often one can see dark cells arranged as a ring on plant cross-sections. The dark aspect is due to tangles of hyphae inside cells, known as arbuscules, of the symbiotic glomeromycotan fungus Glomites rhyniensis [1]. Other details of fungi in chert have been described in [1] and elsewhere but many questions had to be left unanswered. For example, the strange clusters of vesicles grown from the surface of Aglaophyton (Fig.1) are not mentioned in [1].
unknown fungus
The arrangement of the clusters on the surface of Aglaophyton resembles that of a blastocladian fungus in the Rhynie chert  [1,2] but this similarity is most probably only superficial.

Fig.1: Clusters of fungus vesicles grown on the surface of largely decayed Aglaophyton. Width of the picture 4.3mm.

Except for the poorly preserved central strand, no trace of plant tissue is left in Fig.1. The contour of the section is marked by the cuticle. When looked at edgewise, the cuticle appears as a narrow black line, otherwise it is seen as transparent light-brown sheet, as in Fig.1 below right. As seen on the left, and enlarged in Fig.2, the vesicles had grown on a mound bulging out from the surface. Obviously the mound had been formed below the cuticle, probably induced by the fungus in the live plant.
The clusters on the right are not detached but thought to be likewise connected to the slightly inclined shoot. The sizes of the vesicles vary from 0.02mm (or smaller) to 0.1mm. Their shapes may deviate from spherical by deformation due to mutual contact.
Vesicles of more or less globular shapes are known from numerous species of fossil chytrids, a group of fungi thought to have separated from the rest as early as during the Proterozoic [1]. The vesicles are interpreted as zoosporangia, with a "discharge pore" occasionally visible as a characteristic feature [3]. Two big vesicles in Fig.2 have got a kind of short funnel, very dimly seen, which might have served as a discharge pore. (Note the pale short extension pointing left on the big vesicle on the left.)
Hence, the assumption may be justified that the clustered vesicles shown here are zoosporangia of a fungus of the chytrid clade. This implies the following statement: The vesicles presented here are bigger than any fossil chytrid zoosporangium described in [1].
The flower-like aspect of the cluster in Fig.3 (right) is an illusion: One sees only the bigger outer vesicles while most of the cluster is unseen in the depth. 

unknown fungus vesiclesunknown fungus vesicles 

Figs.2,3: Details from Fig.1, clusters most probably of chytrid zoosporangia. Note the bulge grown below the cuticle (Fig.2) and the transparent light-brown cuticle in Fig.3. Height of the images 0.5mm.

H.-J. Weiss    2017

Annotation Nov.2017:
According to M. Krings (private communication), this fungus is the one which has been described in [4] as Trewinomyces annulifer. That one is really similar to this one but there are differences. The sporangia in [4] are mostly pear-shaped or elongate and sit on stalks while these sporangia are mostly globular, and no stalks are seen in these figures. The sporangia diameters in [4] are smaller, up to 65Ám, compared to 115Ám here.
According to [4], "Assemblages of zoospore fungi usually consist of individuals at different developmental stages" but "the growth of T. a. in tufts in which all individuals appear to be at approximately the same stage of development" is thought to be an argument against an affinity to the Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota. The quotations rather favour such affinity of this fungus: As seen in these images, the assemblages really "consist of individuals at different developmental stages."

So we are left with two alternatives: Either the genus diagnosis of T. a. has to be emended such that it includes this fungus, or this fungus is another species.

[1] T.N.Taylor, M. Krings, E.L. Taylor:
Fossil Fungi, Elsevier 2015.
[2] W. Remy, T.N. Taylor, H. Hass: Early Devonian fungi.  Am. J. Bot. 81(1994), 690-702.
[3] Ch. Strullu-Derrien, T. Goral, J.E. Longcore, J. Olesen, P. Kenrick, G.D. Edgecombe: A New Chytridiomycete Fungus Intermixed with Crustacean Resting Eggs
         in a 407-Million-Year-Old Continental Freshwater Environment.   PLoS ONE 11(12): e0167301. doi:10.1371/journal (2016).
M. Krings, T.N. Taylor, H. Martin: An enigmatic fossil fungus ... , Mycologia 108 (2016), 303-312.
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