Lower Plants
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While the Higher Plants make up only one big branch of the profusely branched phylogenetic tree of life, the term "Lower Plants" is traditionally used as a receptacle for all the rest, with the exception of the animals and sometimes of the fungi. (It is recommended to look up phylogenetic trees in the recent literature although they may more or less differ among themselves and have to be repeatedly adjusted to latest discoveries.) The enigmatic nematophytes, which are known as fossils only and have not yet got a safe place on the phylogenetic tree, have recently been placed near the Rhodophyta or among the ascomycetes.
The traditional sorting into "lower" and "higher" clades is not at all adequate to the
fundamentally different
forms of life but it may be justified here.  Palaeonitella
Croftalania (cyanobacteria) in Rhynie Chert
The number of Lower Plant species found in the Rhynie chert exceeds that of the Higher Plants found there, and it will increase further.
The species described here represent the following clades:

  Blue-Green Algae  = Cyanophytes  = Cyanobacteria
  Yellow-Green Algae  = Xanthophytes 
  Green Algae

Lower Plants seem to be scarce in cherts from other locations.nematophyte enigma
There are several good reasons for the assumption that the Higher Plants have evolved from some Green Alga.

Some examples of Lower Plants from the Rhynie chert have been selected here
  - Higher Plant Horneophyton disguised as a monster with a fluffy fur consisting of the cyanophyte
       Croftalania , width of the picture 10mm,
 - probably the first fossil xanthophyte as shown in Rhynie Chert News 69
 (no image here),
charophyte Green Alga, seen here hollow in the chert: Rhynie Chert News 10 ,
 - big "knot" of unknown nematophyte species, unknown purpose,
        (picture width 1.3mm, Rhynie Chert News 156). 
last modified: 2021,  
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